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SPEAKING PROPOSAL 2020
Last updated: 02 March 2020
The information contained herein is subject to change without prior notice.
Autoantibodies associated with risk of subclinical autoimmunity and immune-related adverse events from checkpoint immunotherapy
UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS SOUTHWESTERN MEDICAL CENTER
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have emerged as highly promising treatment for lung cancer. However, some patients develop immune adverse events. We collected serum from 78 patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors and determined autoantibody profiles against 125 autoantigens. In general, the greatest increases in autoantibody levels were among individuals with the highest baseline autoantibody levels. Elevated baseline levels of autoantibodies were associated with the development of immune-related adverse events, with 4 autoantibodies having significantly higher levels in the toxicity group (P<0.05). Immune-related adverse events were also more common among cases with greater post-treatment increase in antibody levels, with 10 antibodies significantly increased in toxicity group (P<0.05). These autoantibodies may potential markers for prediction of immune-related adverse events from immune checkpoint therapy.
Impedance spectroscopy with fish cell lines to create a biosensor on a chip for chemical impact monitoring
SWISS FEDERAL INSTITUTE OF AQUATIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (EAWAG)
Fish are important indicator species for the aquatic environment, and millions of fish are sacrificed annually in toxicity experiments. One alternative is the use of fish cells; cell lines of different species and organs exist, can be cultured in the lab indefinitely, and employed in a variety of in vitro assays. One such assay is impedance sensing: cells are seeded on an electrode chip and resistance is measured in real-time, reflecting the health status of the cells. A decrease in resistance is an indicator for loss of cell viability as can be elicited, for example, by exposure to chemicals. We develop such setups for flow-through exposures and water quality monitoring.
Gate-coupling and Single-trap Effects for Sensitivity Enhancement in Nanowire Field-effect Transistor Biosensors
FORSCHUNGSZENTRUM JÜLICH, BIOELECTRONICS (ICS-8)
Nanowires are unique nanomaterial promising for many fundamental studies as well as for nano - and bioelectronics applications. We develop biosensors based on nanowires for the early detection of cardiovascular and Alzheimer’s diseases. Based on our comprehensive studies on transport and noise phenomena in the fabricated devices, we propose novel approaches on the basis of gate-couling and single-trap effectrs for the detection of the target biomarkers with enhanced sensitivity for advanced biosensing. The developed approach opens prospects for diagnosis of the diseases in real-time at the early stages when therapy can be effectively applied to restore the healthy state of the patient.
Bringing biological content into Biochip and Biosensor systems: Scaling of multiplexed diagnostic test production on Biochips and Biosensors using ultra-low liquid volume dispensing
Most rapid diagnostic tests work by capturing molecules on a solid surface. Surfaces can contain discrete binding sites for analytes carrying a specific capture molecule. The trend in the miniaturization of diagnostic test systems with the intention to increase throughput and decrease cost, requires precise handling of picoliter to nanoliter liquid volumes. Due to the possibility to use only picoliter amounts of reagents, test production costs can be significantly decreased. In addition, due to the smaller feature size of the analytes, introducing multiple other analytes onto the same test area can be easily achieved. A technology platform for seamless use from R&D to production, which delivers ultra-low volumes very accurately onto any surface, enables short development times. Sophisticated optical systems for online alignment, calibration and quality control of goods produced are important from the first development steps. www.scienion.com
An apparatus for instant DNA-identification using antenna-enhanced fluorescence
FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTE FOR PHYSICAL MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES IPM
Single molecule detection via plasmonic amplification of fluorescence may become an alternative to PCR. We present a novel apparatus designed for the point-of-care, which can prepare, conduct and analyze plasmonic assays on a chip. In comparison to conventional PCR methods, the device benefits from a reduced technical complexity. This is reflected in the small sized low cost device, and a fast analysis. Additionally, the method can – in principle – also be applied to different targets like antibodies/antigens. A disposable cartridge is used to process the chemical reactions. Fluorescence signals from a microarray are detected in a miniaturized microscope with < 2 µm resolution. The technical realization and first results for amplified DNA-detection are subject to this presentation. Funded by BMBF, 03VP03892.
A universal platform for nucleic acid based point-of-care diagnostics
FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTE FOR PHYSICAL MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES IPM
We developed a novel platform based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By combining microfluidic integration and a fully automated processing unit, we achieve an overall processing of about 45 minutes. The microfluidic elements are combined into a disposable disk with no active elements which has all reagents prestored. All active components, particularly the rotation unit, the heating unit, and the fluorescence readout module are integrated into a fully automated device designed for the point-of-care. The functional units of the platform will be presented. Special emphasis is given on the fast thermocycling based on a non-equilibrium approach with direct infrared liquid heating. The platform has been tested with assays for resistant pathogens. Funded by BMBF, 031A586C.
The mycotoxin detection by graphene-based aptasensor
We report an on-chip aptasensor for ochratoxin A (OTA) toxin detection that is based on a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET). Graphene-based devices are fabricated via large-scale technology, allowing for upscaling the sensor fabrication and lowering the device cost. The sensor assembly was performed through covalent bonding of graphene’s surface with an specific to OTA aptamer. Fast (within 5 min) response to OTA was demonstrated with a detection limit of 4 pg/mL. We demonstrated the regeneration of sensor with time constant of the sensor only 5.6 s, meaning fast sensor regeneration for multiple usages. The high reproducibility of the sensing response was demonstrated via using several recycling procedures as well as various GFETs. The developed platform opens the way for multiplex sensing of different toxins using an on-chip array of graphene sensors.
The Power of a Micropump
INSTITUT JEAN LAMOUR/UNIVERSITÉ DE LORRAINE
Knowledge of the electromagnetic properties of cells can provide early signals of disease or abnormal conditions in the human body for medical applications. In combination with microfluidic devices, impedance spectroscopy can be a powerful tool for sorting, analyzing, counting and discriminating cells. Thus we propose a microfluidic biosensor combined to a matrix-shaped structure of electrodes. It allows different configurations of measurement such as single cell, agregat of cells or tomography. From the results already obtained, we show a good sensibility to detect a single sample of 10 µm and a backer yeast culture difference.
Online Monitoring of The Power of a Micropump
In this talk, a bulk Si-based micropump based on an electrostatic driving principle called nanoscopic electrotstatic drive (nano E-drive or just NED) will be presented. A comparison to commercially available micropumps will be given as well as first characterization results. Furthermore, the same actuation principle can be used to create valve components which can be merged with the micropumps. An outline includes possible fields of application.
Mechanical Contribution of stromal cells to the formation of human vasculature
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON
This is a project which is on the role of stromal cells in the formation and stabilization of human blood vessels. To address that we employed a microfluidic platform consisted of 3 channels. Also we recruited GFP-endothelial cells and normal human lung fibroblasts. By mono-culturing and co-culturing ECs, also applying chemical inhibitors and si-RNA approach to perturb some genes belonging to mechanotransduction pathways, we could show that fibroblasts contribute mechanically to the human vessel formation.
Microfluidic drop reactors for fabrication in drug delivery
UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM
Microfluidics provide the opportunity of formation and manipulation of monodisperse drops of submillimetre size with possibilities for drug encapsulation. Drops can be further solidified in tailored way to guarantee the prescribed drug release profile. The main problem in microfluidic production of solid particles is channel clogging. Here we suggest a combination of flow microfluidics with drop microreactors which enables avoidance of this problem. As an example we use the synthesis of alginate gel particles by drop coalescence allowing isolation of a gelated alginate particle inside the drop of calcium chloride moving inside the continuous oil phase. The properties of alginate particles can be controlled by mass transfer inside the combined drop, being a function of process parameters.
Amino acids and their derivatives as platforms for photonic integrated circuits
HOLON INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Bioinspired peptide nanostructures have gained much attention in recent years in the field of nanotechnology and are considered as a new frontier in materials science. These bioorganic materials are self-assembled into nanoarchitectures of different morphology and size, and have crystalline structure. Optical waveguiding phenomena in bioinspired nanostructures can be used to revolutionize emerging fields of precision medical trials and health monitoring In this talk, I will present various types of bioinspired materials and show how these materials can be used as raw materials for photonic integrated devices. I will focus on optical waveguiding property in Histidine-based back-to-back trapezoid microstructure, and show top-down approach to construct various types of optical devices based on derivatives of Phenylalanine amino acid.